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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines: A Comprehensive Guide
9

What is a Neuro-biogenic Amine (neurotransmitter)?
9

Types and Functions of Neuro-biogenic Amines
13

Neurotransmitter Transporters
14

Neurotransmitter Receptors
14

Neuro-biogenic Amine Synthesis and Metabolism
15

Blood-Brain Barrier
21

Endogenous Effects
23

Diet
23

Medication
24

Digestion and Absorption
26

Renal Function and Neurotransmitters
28

Endocrine and Metabolic Effects on Neurotransmission
28

Nutrient Cofactors
30

Environment, Exposures, and Inheritance
47

Inheritance and Epigenetics
47

Methylation
49

Toxic Exposures
50

Detoxification
57

A Functional Approach to Neurotransmission
58

Neurotransmitter Analytes
61

Dopamine
61

Effects
61

Synthesis and Metabolism
63

Receptors
65

References
67

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)
68

Effects
69

Synthesis and Metabolism
70

References
71

3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT)
72

Effects
72

Synthesis and Metabolism
72

Receptors
73

References
73

Norepinephrine
74

Effects
74

Synthesis and Metabolism
76

Receptors
77

References
79

Normetanephrine
80

Effects
80

Synthesis and Metabolism
81

References
82

Epinephrine
83

Effects
83

Synthesis and Metabolism
84

Receptors
85

References
86

Metanephrine
86

Effects
87

Synthesis and metabolism
88

References
89

Adrenal and paraganglia tumors
89

References
91

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)
91

Effects
91

Serotonin and Migraine
93

Synthesis and Metabolism
94

Receptors
96

References
97

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)
99

Effects
99

Synthesis and Metabolism
100

Receptors
101

References
101

Tryptamine
101

Effects
102

Synthesis and Metabolism
102

Receptors
103

References
104

Glutamate
105

Effects
105

Synthesis and metabolism
106

Receptors
108

References
109

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
111

Effects
111

Synthesis and Metabolism
112

Receptors
113

References
115

Tyrosine
116

Effects
116

Synthesis and metabolism
117

Receptors
118

References
118

Tyramine
119

Effects
119

Synthesis and Metabolism
120

Receptors
121

References
122

Phenylethylamine (PEA)
123

Effects
123

Synthesis and Metabolism
124

Receptors
124

References
126

Taurine (2-aminoethane- sulfonic acid)
126

Effects
127

Synthesis and Metabolism
127

Receptors
129

References
129

Glycine
130

Effects
130

Synthesis and Metabolism
131

Receptors
132

References
132

Histamine
133

Effects
133

Synthesis and Metabolism
134

Receptors
135

References
135

Document References
139

About the Author
150