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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 


secreting tumor, and are considered con-

firmational tests for plasma results.


A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia (2012)

PubMed Health PMH0001380/

Accessed 04 December 2014

American Association for Clinical Chemistry

(2013) Urine Metanephrines. analytes/urine-metanephrine/tab/sample/

Accessed 25 July 2014.

American Association of Endocrine Surgeons


Paraganglioma (adrenaline-producing tumor

outside the adrenal gland) glioma.shtml

Accessed 04 December 2014

Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W.M.;

Timmers, Henri; Mannelli, Massimo;

Grebe, Stefan K. et al. (2011)

Measurements of Plasma Methoxytyramine,

Normetanephrine, and Metanephrine as

Discriminators of Different Hereditary

Forms of Pheochromocytoma

Clin. Chem.

vol. 57 (3) p. 411-420

Foo, S.H.; Chan, S.P.; Ananda, V.; Rajasingam

V. (2010)

Dopamine-secreting phaeochromo-cytomas

and paragangliomas: clinical features and


Singapore Med J 2010; 51(5) : e89

Gupta, Pallav, MD. (2004)

Adrenal gland and paraganglia adrenalpheochromocytoma.html

Accessed 04 December 2014

Goldstein, David S.; Eisenhofer, Graeme;

Kopin, Irwin J. (2003)

Sources and Significance of Plasma Levels

of Catechols and Their Metabolites in


J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.

vol. 305 (3) p.




Serotonin signaling in the central

nervous system (CNS) may influence

mood, appetite, sleep, memory and

learning, homeostasis, and sexual be-

haviors. Serotonin may modulate the

activity or release of other neurotrans-

mitters. Approximately 10% of plasma

serotonin is synthesized in the central

nervous system.

There are a great many serotonin re-

ceptors with different levels of affinity,

expression and function that may also

play a role in disorders of serotonin me-

tabolism. Serotonin affects vasoconstric-

tion and vasodilation. Serotonin is also

essential for gastrointestinal health; 95%

of the body’s serotonin is found in the

gut. Osteoblasts (bone cells) have se-

rotonin receptors and studies indicates

that serotonin levels may affect bone

mass. Animal studies indicate that sero-

tonin signaling may promote liver regen-

eration. Research continues to discover

how serotonin signaling further regu-

lates physiological functions.



serotonin levels have been

associated with obsessive-compulsive

disorder (OCD), anger, insomnia, and

depression. Some eating disorders and

migraine headaches may also be relat-

ed to low serotonin levels. Low levels

of serotonin have been associated with

aggressive behavior in animal studies.

One study of pregnant women has asso-