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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 

83

secreting tumor, and are considered con-

firmational tests for plasma results.

References:

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia (2012)

PubMed Health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/ PMH0001380/

Accessed 04 December 2014

American Association for Clinical Chemistry

(2013) Urine Metanephrines.

http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/ analytes/urine-metanephrine/tab/sample/

Accessed 25 July 2014.

American Association of Endocrine Surgeons

(2013)

Paraganglioma (adrenaline-producing tumor

outside the adrenal gland)

http://endocrinediseases.org/adrenal/paragan- glioma.shtml

Accessed 04 December 2014

Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W.M.;

Timmers, Henri; Mannelli, Massimo;

Grebe, Stefan K. et al. (2011)

Measurements of Plasma Methoxytyramine,

Normetanephrine, and Metanephrine as

Discriminators of Different Hereditary

Forms of Pheochromocytoma

Clin. Chem.

vol. 57 (3) p. 411-420

Foo, S.H.; Chan, S.P.; Ananda, V.; Rajasingam

V. (2010)

Dopamine-secreting phaeochromo-cytomas

and paragangliomas: clinical features and

management

Singapore Med J 2010; 51(5) : e89

Gupta, Pallav, MD. (2004)

Adrenal gland and paraganglia

http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/ adrenalpheochromocytoma.html

Accessed 04 December 2014

Goldstein, David S.; Eisenhofer, Graeme;

Kopin, Irwin J. (2003)

Sources and Significance of Plasma Levels

of Catechols and Their Metabolites in

Humans

J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.

vol. 305 (3) p.

800-811

Serotonin

(5-hydroxytryptamine)

Serotonin signaling in the central

nervous system (CNS) may influence

mood, appetite, sleep, memory and

learning, homeostasis, and sexual be-

haviors. Serotonin may modulate the

activity or release of other neurotrans-

mitters. Approximately 10% of plasma

serotonin is synthesized in the central

nervous system.

There are a great many serotonin re-

ceptors with different levels of affinity,

expression and function that may also

play a role in disorders of serotonin me-

tabolism. Serotonin affects vasoconstric-

tion and vasodilation. Serotonin is also

essential for gastrointestinal health; 95%

of the body’s serotonin is found in the

gut. Osteoblasts (bone cells) have se-

rotonin receptors and studies indicates

that serotonin levels may affect bone

mass. Animal studies indicate that sero-

tonin signaling may promote liver regen-

eration. Research continues to discover

how serotonin signaling further regu-

lates physiological functions.

Effects:

Decreased

serotonin levels have been

associated with obsessive-compulsive

disorder (OCD), anger, insomnia, and

depression. Some eating disorders and

migraine headaches may also be relat-

ed to low serotonin levels. Low levels

of serotonin have been associated with

aggressive behavior in animal studies.

One study of pregnant women has asso-