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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 


Glutathione status

( Glutathione; erythrocytes )

Oxidative stress/8OH-dG

( DNA Oxidative Damage Assay )


( DNA Methylation Pathway )


American Association for Clinical Chemistry


Urine Metanephrines analytes/urine-metanephrine/tab/sample/

Accessed 04 Aug 2014

Daubner, S Colette; Le, Tiffany; Wang,

Shanzhi (2011)

Tyrosine hydroxylase and regulation of dopa-

mine synthesis.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics


508 (1) p. 1-12

Eisenhofer, Graeme; Kopin, Irwin J.;

Goldstein, David S. (2004)

Catecholamine Metabolism: A

Contemporary View with Implications

for Physiology and Medicine

Pharmacol. Rev.

vol. 56 (3) p. 331-349

Eisenhofer, Graeme (2001)

Free or Total Metanephrines for Diagnosis

of Pheochromocytoma: What Is the


Clin. Chem.

vol. 47 (6) p. 988-989

Goldstein, David S (2010)

Catecholamines 101.

Clinical autonomic research: official journal

of the Clinical Autonomic Research

Society vol. 20 (6) p. 331-52

Goldstein, David S.; Eisenhofer, Graeme;

Kopin, Irwin J. (2003)

Sources and Significance of Plasma Levels

of Catechols and Their Metabolites in


J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.

vol. 305 (3) p.


Jong, Wilhelmina H. A. de; Eisenhofer,

Graeme; Post, Wendy J.; Muskiet, Frits A.

J.; Vries, Elisabeth G. E. de et al. (2013)

Dietary Influences on Plasma and Urinary

Metanephrines: Implications for

Diagnosis of Catecholamine-Producing


Endocrine Society

Merke, Deborah P. MD, et al. (2000)

Adrenomedullary Dysplasia and

Hypofunction in Patients with Classic

21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1362-1368

November 9, 2000

Oeltmann, Timothy; Carson, Robert;

Shannon, John R.; Ketch, Terry;

Robertson, David (2004)

Assessment of O-methylated catecholamine

levels in plasma and urine for diagnosis

of autonomic disorders

Autonomic Neuroscience

vol. 116 (1) p. 1-10

Wong, Dona L; Tai, T C; Wong-Faull, David

C; Claycomb, Robert; Kvetnanský,

Richard (2008)

Adrenergic responses to stress: transcription-

al and post-transcriptional changes.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

vol. 1148 p. 249-56

Adrenal and paraganglia tumors

Rare catecholamine-secreting tu-

mors may occur in the adrenal medul-

la (pheochromocytoma) and elsewhere

in the body (extra-adrenal paraganglio-

ma). About 90% of pheochromocyto-

mae are located in the adrenal glands.

While a few are cancerous, most are

benign – they do not spread beyond

their original location – although most

do continue to grow. Paragangliomae

have been found in the abdomen, chest,

neck and head; they may develop any-

where there are sympathetic nerve cells.

Depending on the location and type

of tumor, excess epinephrine, norepi-