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 Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE

In the kidney, receptor stimulation

results in the release of rennin.

beta2 receptors – are found in a

variety of involuntary muscles, such

as the bladder detrusor muscle, the

eye cilliary muscle and vascular

smooth muscles. Stimulation of the

receptor relaxes these muscles and

decreases gastrointestinal motility.

In the liver,

2 stimulation increases

glucose activation and lipolysis (fat


beta3 receptors – stimulation of

these receptors promotes lipolysis.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

(SNPs) in the DNA coding for adrener-

gic receptors may affect their structure

and function. A variety of medications

target specific types of adrenergic recep-

tors and may influence norepinephrine

levels and signaling.


Copper status

( RBC Elements )

Magnesium status

( RBC Elements


Status of neurotransmitter precursor


( Amino Acids )


( DNA Methylation Pathway )


Bauer, M.; Heinz, A.; Whybrow, P.C.(2002)

Thyroid hormones, serotonin and mood:

of synergy and significance in the adult


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Catecholamines 101.

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Hays, M T; Solomon, D H (1969)

Effect of epinephrine on the peripheral me-

tabolism of thyroxine.

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Ji, Yuan; Snyder, Eric M.; Fridley, Brooke L.;

Salavaggione, Oreste E.; Moon, Irene et

al. (2008)

Human phenylethanolamine

N-methyltransferase genetic polymor-

phisms and exercise-induced epinephrine


Physiol Genomics

vol. 33 (3) p. 323-332

Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H; Bülow, J


Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline

in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes.

Nutrition & diabetes

vol. 2 p. e46

Wu, Qian; Caine, Joanne M; Thomson,

Stuart A; Slavica, Meri; Grunewald, Gary

L et al. (2009)

Time-dependent inactivation

of human phenylethanol-

amine N-methyltransferase by


Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters


19 (4) p. 1071-4

Ziegler, Michael G; Aung, Myo; Kennedy,

Brian (1997)

Sources of human urinary epinephrine

International Society of Nephrology

vol. 51 (1)

p. 324-327


Metanephrine is a metabolite of epi-

nephrine. The adrenal glands are the

single largest source of metanephrine.

Approximately 90% of circulating me-

tanephrine is derived from catechol-

amine metabolism in the adrenal me-

dulla. Both the catecholamines and their

metabolites are excreted in the urine.

In the normal population, plasma me-

tanephrine and normetanephrine levels

are low. Clinically, metanephrine levels

provide an indication of the adrenal me-