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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 

63

mine in noradrenergic (norepinephrine)

nerves and that some plasma DOPAC

may originate from sympathetic nerves.

Plasma DOPAC is also formed from me-

tabolism of dopamine in non-neuronal

cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Food

ingestion increases plasma DOPAC lev-

els, although the exact effects of diet re-

main unknown.

Consider:

Copper levels

( RBC Elements )

Magnesium levels

( RBC Elements )

Manganese levels

( RBC Elements )

Selenium levels

( RBC Elements )

MAOA or COMT SNPs

( DNA Methylation Pathway )

Methionine metabolism and

methylation pathways

( Plasma Methylation Profile, DNA Methylation Pathway )

Glutathione status

( Glutathione; erythrocytes )

Oxidative stress

( DNA Oxidative Damage Assay/8-OHdG )

References:

Castaño, A; Ayala, A; Rodriguez-Gomez, J A;

de la Cruz, C P; Revilla, E et al. (1995)

Increase in dopamine turnover and tyrosine

hydroxylase enzyme in hippocampus of

rats fed on low selenium diet.

J

ournal of neuroscience research

vol. 42 (5) p.

684-91

Desai, Vishal; Kaler, Stephen G (2008)

Role of copper in human neurological disorders

Am J Clin Nutr

vol. 88 (3) p. 855S-858

Eldrup, Ebbe; Richter, Erik A. (2000)

DOPA, dopamine, and DOPAC concen-

trations in the rat gastrointestinal tract

decrease during fasting

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab

vol. 279 (4)

p. E815-822

Eldrup, Ebbe (2004) Significance and origin

of DOPA, DOPAC, and dopamine-sul-

phate in plasma, tissues and cerebrospi-

nal fluid.

Danish Medical Bulletin

- No. 1. February

2004. Vol. 51 Pages 34-62.

Goldstein, David S.; Eisenhofer, Graeme;

Kopin, Irwin J. (2003)

Sources and Significance of Plasma Levels

of Catechols and Their Metabolites in

Humans

J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.

vol. 305 (3) p.

800-811

Rooke, N; Li, D J; Li, J; Keung, W M (2000)

The mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-alde-

hyde dehydrogenase pathway: a potential

site of action of daidzin.

Journal of medicinal chemistry

vol. 43 (22) p.

4169-79

Sistrunk, Shannon C; Ross, Matthew K;

Filipov, Nikolay M (2007)

Direct effects of manganese compounds on

dopamine and its metabolite Dopac: an

in vitro study.

Environmental toxicology and pharmacology

vol. 23 (3) p. 286-96

Wallace, Lane J; Traeger, Jessica S (2012)

Dopac distribution and regulation in striatal

dopaminergic varicosities and extracel-

lular space.

Synapse (New York, N.Y.)

vol. 66 (2) p.

160-73

Zhou, Wenbo; Gallagher, Amy; Hong, Dong-

Pyo; Long, Chunmei; Fink, Anthony L et

al. (2009)

At low concentrations, 3,4-dihydroxypheny-

lacetic acid (DOPAC) binds non-cova-

lently to alpha-synuclein and prevents its

fibrillation.

Journal of molecular biology

vol. 388 (3) p.

597-610