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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 


Environment, Exposures,

and Inheritance

Inheritance and Epigenetics

An individual’s inheritance the sum

of the genetic material received from

both parents. Genetic information con-

trols the assembly and function of:

Enzymes that synthesize


Enzymes that metabolize (degrade)


Transporters that move

neurotransmitters, amino acids and

nutrient cofactors across the blood

brain barrier (BBB), into vesicles for

storage, or across cell membranes

Neurotransmitter receptors

The structure of deoxyribonucleic

acid (DNA) may be altered by rare mu-

tations. Mutations occur when an error

is made by a cell during the copying of

DNA (see Figure 10) the error may be

due to:

Alteration of a single base pair in the


Deletion of a base pair or larger

section of DNA

Insertion of extra base pairs into


Rearrangement of sections of DNA

or chromosomes

Mutations are extremely rare.

Another type of genetic variation, sin-

gle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), is

much more common. SNPs are present

in at least one percent of the popula-

Image courtesyofWikimedia commons.

CreatedbyUser:Madprime (2007)Usedwithpermission.


The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA);

mutations occur when an error is made by a cell

during the copying of DNA.