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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 

127

mine-rich foods, alcohol or pharmaceu-

ticals that release histamine. Symptoms

may include diffuse epigastric discom-

fort, colic, flatulence, diarrhea, nasal

congestion, asthma-like wheezing, hy-

potension, arrhythmia, urticaria (hives),

pruritus (itching), flushing, headaches

(migraine or cluster). Deficiencies of

DAO or aldehyde dehydrogenase may

also decrease levels of the neuroac-

tive metabolite of histamine, imidaz-

oleacetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP). In the

CNS, histamine neurons are located in

the posterior hypothalamus, and project

their fibers to most regions of the brain.

Histamine neurons also metabolize a va-

riety of other neurotransmitters in addi-

tion to histamine.

Receptors:

Histamine binds with different

groups of histamine receptors and may

also bind to N-methyl-D-aspartate

(NMDA) receptors.

H

1

Widespread distribution in

the brain; mediates excitatory

responses; may contribute to

wakefulness and cognition

Expressed in smooth muscle and

endothelial cells

Contributes to IgE Type I

hypersensitivity reactions

H

2

Expressed in areas of the brain;

may modulate action potential of

neurons

Expressed on white blood cells

Stimulation of H2 receptors on

parietal cells induces the release

of hydrochloric acid in the

stomach

H

3

Exclusively expressed in neurons

and modulate neurotransmission;

inhibitory; regulate the release of

monoamines, acetylcholine and

histamine

Expressed in pre-synaptic and

post-synaptic neurons in different

parts of the brain

Found in proximity to dopamine

receptors in the basal ganglia of

the brain

H

4

Expressed on mast cells,

eosinophils, T-cells, and dendritic

cells

Regulate immunity

Consider:

Copper status

( RBC Elements )

Histidine precursor status

( Plasma Amino Acids )

Oxidative stress

( DNA Oxidative Damage Assay/8-OHdG )

Methylation pathway activity

( Plasma Methylation Profile

,

DNA Methylation Pathway )

References:

Blandina, Patrizio; Efoudebe, Marcel; Cenni,

Gabriele; Mannaioni, Pierfrancesco;

Passani, Maria Beatrice (2004)

Acetylcholine, Histamine, and Cognition:

Two Sides of the Same Coin

Learn. Mem

. vol. 11 (1) p. 1-8

Bowen, R.(2008)

Histamine and Histamine receptors.

Colorado State University

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/path- phys/endocrine/otherendo/histamine.html

Accessed 15 January 2015