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 Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE

schizophrenia and related affective and

cognitive disturbances, alcohol depen-

dence, pain, epilepsy, breathing disor-

ders and startle disease (also known as

hyperekplexia). Sarcosine may act as a

GlyT1 inhibitor. Animal studies indicate

that GlyT2 may play an important role

in clearing glycine from the spinal cord,

and may play further roles both in blad-

der hyperactivity and in the perception

of pain.


Glycine receptors are known primar-

ily through their function in spinal cir-

cuits; they are important in both motor

control and pain perception. Glycine re-

ceptors are also found in various areas

of the brain. Genetic variations in the

glycine receptor may contribute to sei-

zure disorders, and genetic variation in

the NDMA receptor may affect neuron

excitability and plasticity. Genetic dis-

orders of glycine, gamma-aminobutyric

acid (GABA), and serine metabolism

are associated with seizure disorders, as

are genetic defects in GABA and glycine

receptor function. Mutations of glycine

receptor subunits have been associated

with hereditary hyperekplexia (star-

tle disease) and some types of autism.

Studies with knockout mice indicate

that mutations in glycine receptors may

affect the function of the hippocampus

and, in addition to causing seizures, may

alter memory and cognition. The three

primary endogenous agonists for gly-

cine receptors are, in order of receptor

affinity: glycine,

-alanine and taurine.

Caffeine has been shown to inhibit gly-

cine receptors in vitro.


Serine levels

( Amino Acids )

Transsulfuration pathway integrity

and methylation capacity

( Plasma Methylation Profile )

Glutathione status

( Glutathione; erythrocytes )


Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-

Michel (2013)

Glycine receptors and brain development.

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vol. 7 p. 184

Badenhorst CP; Erasmus E; van der Sluis R;

Nortje C; van Dijk AA (2014)

A new perspective on the importance of

glycine conjugation in the metabolism of

aromatic acids.

Drug Metab Rev. 2014; 46(3):343-61

Betz, H; Gomeza, J; Armsen, W; Scholze, P;

Eulenburg, V (2006)

Glycine transporters: essential regulators of

synaptic transmission.

Biochemical Society transactions

vol. 34 (Pt

1) p. 55-8

Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Moura,

Alana Pimentel; Viegas, Carolina Maso;

Zanatta, Ângela; da Costa Ferreira,

Gustavo et al. (2010)

Neurochemical evidence that glycine induc-

es bioenergetical dysfunction

Neurochemistry International

vol. 56 (8) p.


Duan, Lei; Yang, Jaeyoung; Slaughter,

Malcolm M (2009)

Caffeine inhibition of ionotropic glycine


The Journal of physiology

vol. 587 (Pt 16) p.


Glycine receptors. (2009).

British Journal of Pharmacology,158


1), S117–S118. doi:10.1111/j.1476-


Harvey, Robert J.; Yee, Benjamin K. (2013)