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Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE 

121

cluding genetics, age, gender, diet, renal

function and medical conditions.

Receptors:

No specific neuro-active taurine re-

ceptor has yet been identified, but tau-

rine has been shown in vitro and in vivo,

to affect other neurotransmitter recep-

tors. Taurine may potentiate N-methyl-

D-aspartate (NMDA), gamma-ami-

nobutyrate A (GABA-A) and glycine

receptors. Taurine may compete with

glycine for glycine receptor sites.

Taurine may influence presynaptic

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) recep-

tor signaling, and is known to bind with

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-

A/B receptors (in vitro and in vivo an-

imal studies). Glycine must also bind to

NMDA receptors to activate them and

taurine may compete with glycine for

NMDAR access. Strong taurine activa-

tion of a group of GABA-A receptors in

the rodent thalamus has been recently

documented. The thalamus is involved

in “behavioral state control” and reg-

ulates transitions between sleep and

wakefulness.

The effects of taurine on various re-

ceptors may vary by taurine concentra-

tion, brain region and neurotransmitter

receptor type.

Consider:

Renal function

( Creatinine Clearance Test )

Serum electrolyte status

( Serum Elements )

Intracellular electrolyte status

( RBC Elements )

Methionine metabolism and

methylation pathways

( Plasma Methylation Profile , DNA Methylation Pathway )

Oxidative stress/8OH-dG

( DNA Oxidative Damage Assay )

References:

Cornell Chronicle (2014)

Scientists close in on taurine’s activity in the

brain (Red Bull drinkers, take note)

Cornell Chronicle • 312 College Ave.,

Ithaca, NY 14850

http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2008/02/scien- tists-

close-taurines-activity-brain

retrieved

10 September 2014

Faggiano, Antongiulio; Melis, Daniela; Alfieri,

Raffaele; De Martino, MariaCristina;

Filippella, Mariagiovanna et al. (2005)

Sulfur amino acids in Cushing’s disease: in-

sight in homocysteine and taurine levels

in patients with active and cured disease.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and me-

tabolism

vol. 90 (12) p. 6616-22

Han, X; Patters, A B; Jones, D P; Zelikovic, I;

Chesney, R W

The taurine transporter: mechanisms of

regulation.

Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)

vol. 187

(1-2) p. 61-73

Ivan K S Yap; Manya Angley (2010)

Urinary metabolic phenotyping differen-

tiates children with autism from their

unaffected siblings and age-matched

controls.

Journal of proteome research

vol. 9 (6) p.

2996 - 3004

Jerkins, Ann A.; Jones, Deborah D.;

Kohlhepp, Edwin A. (1998)

Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase

mRNA Abundance Decreases in Rats Fed

a High-Protein Diet

J. Nutr.

vol. 128 (11) p. 1890-1895

Lourenco and Camilo (2002)