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 Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE


Berry, M D (2007)

The potential of trace amines and their

receptors for treating neurological and

psychiatric diseases.

Reviews on recent clinical trials

vol. 2 (1) p.


Berry, Mark D (2004)

Mammalian central nervous system trace

amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines,

physiologic neuromodulators.

Journal of neurochemistry

vol. 90 (2) p.


Husebye, E S; Boe, A S; Rorsman, F; Kämpe,

O; Aakvaag, A et al. (2000)

Inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid

decarboxylase activity by human


Clinical and experimental immunology


120 (3) p. 420-3

Kusaga, Akira (2002)

Decreased beta-phenylethylamine in urine

of children with attention deficit hyper-

activity disorder and autistic disorder.

No to hattatsu. Brain and development

vol. 34

(3) p. 243-8

Ledonne, Ada; Berretta, Nicola; Davoli,

Alessandro; Rizzo, Giada Ricciardo;

Bernardi, Giorgio et al. (2011)

Electrophysiological effects of trace amines

on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

Frontiers in systems neuroscience

vol. 5 p. 56

Licata, Angelo A.; Radfar, Nezam; Bartter,

Frederic C.; Bou, Ernestina (1978)

The urinary excretion of phosphoeth-

anolamine in diseases other than


The American Journal of Medicine

vol. 64 (1)

p. 133-138

Narang, Deepak et al. (2011)

Trace Amines and Their Relevance to

Psychiatry and Neurology: A Brief


Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology


Tang, Ya-Li; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Shyh-Mirn


Both inorganic and organic selenium sup-

plements can decrease brain monoamine

oxidase B enzyme activity in adult rats.

The British journal of nutrition

vol. 100 (3)

p. 660-5

Xie, Zhihua; Miller, Gregory M. (2008)

β-Phenylethylamine Alters Monoamine

Transporter Function via Trace Amine-

Associated Receptor 1: Implication for

Modulatory Roles of Trace Amines in


J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.

vol. 325 (2) p.


Zucchi, R; Chiellini, G; Scanlan, T S; Grandy,

D K (2006)

Trace amine-associated receptors and their


British journal of pharmacology

vol. 149 (8)

p. 967-78

Taurine (2-aminoethane-

sulfonic acid)

The essential amino acid taurine is

most abundant in the brain, spinal cord,

leukocytes, heart, muscle cells, and ret-

ina. Taurine promotes neural develop-

ment in both the embryonic and adult

brain. Taurine acts as a neuromodulator

and exerts,

in vitro

, an inhibitory effect

on the firing rate of central nervous sys-

tem (CNS) neurons. Taurine has been

shown in human and animal studies to

have mild anti-convulsant effects.

In the CNS taurine regulates the lev-

els of electrolytes within neurons; the

level of ions such as calcium, magne-

sium and potassium within neurons al-

ters the action potential (firing rate) in

the nerve cell. Taurine’s effects in the

CNS may vary by taurine concentra-

tion, brain region and neurotransmitter

receptor type. Taurine has antioxidant

properties; it stabilizes the electron