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 Functional Assessment of Urinary Neuro-biogenic Amines—A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE

SNP has been associated with

increased familial susceptibility

to schizophrenia in those of

European or African-American



Expressed in the amygdala of the

brain and in leukocytes, kidneys


Expressed in pituitary and in

leukocytes, kidney and skeletal


Trace amines may activate sigma re-

ceptors and modulate potassium and

calcium channels (in vitro); altering the

level of ions inside neurons may change

their action potential and firing rate.


Selenium status

( RBC Elements )

Glutathione status

( Glutathione; erythrocytes )

Oxidative stress

( DNA Oxidative Damage Assay/8-OHdG )

Methylation pathway activity

( Plasma Methylation Profile


DNA Methylation Pathway )


Berry, M.D. (2007)

The Potential of Trace Amines and Their

Receptors for Treating Neurological and

Psychiatric Diseases

Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

, 2007, 2,


Berry, Mark D. (2004)

Mammalian central nervous system trace

amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines,

physiologic neuromodulators.

Journal of Neurochemistry

, Volume 90, Issue

2, pages 257–271, July 2004

Goldstein, David S. (2008)

Genotype and Vascular Phenotype Linked

by Catecholamine Systems


vol. 117 (4) p. 458-461

Haduch, Anna; Bromek, Ewa; Daniel,

Władysława A (2013)

Role of brain cytochrome P450 (CYP2D)

in the metabolism of monoaminergic


Pharmacological reports : PR

vol. 65 (6) p.


Ledonne, Ada; Berretta, Nicola; Davoli,

Alessandro; Rizzo, Giada Ricciardo;

Bernardi, Giorgio et al. (2011)

Electrophysiological effects of trace amines

on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

Frontiers in systems neuroscience

vol. 5 p. 56

Miller, Gregory M (2011)

The emerging role of trace amine-associated

receptor 1 in the functional regulation of

monoamine transporters and dopaminer-

gic activity.

Journal of neurochemistry

vol. 116 (2) p.


Narang, Deepak; Tomlinson, Sara; Holt,

Andrew; Darrell D. Mousseau, Glen B.

Baker, DSc, FCAHS (2011)

Trace amines and their relevance to psychia-

try and neurology: a brief overview

Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology


21 (1) p. 73-79

Goldstein, David S. (2008)

Genotype and Vascular Phenotype Linked

by Catecholamine Systems


vol. 117 (4) p. 458-461

Zucchi, R; Chiellini, G; Scanlan, T S; Grandy,

D K (2006)

Trace amine-associated receptors and their


British journal of pharmacology

vol. 149 (8)

p. 967-78